Русский English
Forgotten stars of the Soviet automobile industry

Soviet sports cars, auto rarities of USSR


Soviet sports cars - ZIS-101A-Sport

It is finished! In 1939, the Bureau of the pilot plant was developed by VMS own Soviet sports car ZIS-101A-Sport, which was not only examined, but also approved the country's leadership - IV Stalin! But, first things first.

In 1938, the Soviet motor racing, despite all the efforts and zeal, was in its infancy. Some experience has been, but it was not enough. And still not enough for the production of light aluminum body parts, and special tires with a speed of 150 km / h, as well as spark plugs and carburetors did not exist. All production of fast cars was limited to masters of DIY and sports clubs. GAZ-GL1 Eugene Agitova prepared at the factory, not even close to approaching the world level.

In the same 1938 KB pilot plant plant named after Stalin worked three young men - Vladimir Kremenetskiy Nicholas Pulmanov and Anatoly Puhalin. The latter was just finishing the evening faculty of the Moscow road and wrote a diploma on "fast cars". It was his submission of Young Communists set about trying to create a sports car.

Choose gear for a long time did not have to - it was decided to use the latest modification of the modern car - ZIS-101, serially produced since 1936. All anything, but "one hundred and first" - a limousine! Huge - the length of almost 6 meters in width - about 2 m, weighing 2.5 tons limo! Make a roadster out of a car could just crazy. Or Komsomol.

Boil job. Puhalin created a common layout, redesigned suspension ZIS-101: both, in particular, have received anti-roll bars, there was a vacuum brake booster. Rear axle with hypoid gears (incidentally, the first in the USSR) designed Kremenets, and took up motor Pulmanov. He forced the engine significantly 101st, increasing speed, compression ratio, changing the valve timing. Straight eight (!) Engine of 5766 cc. volume was increased to 6060 cc., was head of the block, pistons, connecting rods, aluminum, and other crankshaft camshaft, intake manifold, two carburetors MKZ-A2 without the air filter. Capacity increased by half - from 90 to 141 hp at 3300 rev / min. In the revised gearbox synchronizers appeared conical and overdrive. Gearbox - standard on ZIS-101A.

Approach to design a car fundamentally different from what it was before. Make a single streamlined body on the basis of body ZIS-101 enthusiasts do not even occurred to me. It was too easy! Since the work connected repairers Valentine sprout. Fortunately, he was a good designer, and, moreover, perfectly painted with watercolors. So on the table "technical council" went to the car sketches, of which he was selected the best.

Because the power plant was very long and very hard to improve the balance of the axes and the load drive wheel, double cockpit was removed far back. In addition ZIS-101A-Sport has a removable canopy, the air intake on the bonnet and head optics, set into the fairing front wings. The base car was a huge la coupe - 3750 mm, length - 5750mm.

But it is on paper, but in reality .... Embody the idea of ​​the metal was not possible. Make foundry models, accessories diagrams dies, tooling, wooden dummy for Body - for enthusiastic individuals, this problem was practically feasible. "Pull" the 90-strong motor, and then 51 more easily.

The authorities reacted to the request for assistance, at least, cool. The quality of the ZIS-101, which increased demands, left much to be desired. The state commission headed by EA Chudakov, visited the then head of the Department of wheeled vehicles VAMM Red Army, where he worked for the notorious Nikitin SA, has identified a number of shortcomings (in particular - the necessary weight reduction ZIS-101 to 600-700 kg), given the necessary recommendations. But to give advice - is one thing and do - both. Especially when every morning in the shops do not doschityvalos arrested during the night staff. Company Puhalina lucky that their work few people knew one another not to be short of perfect in the morning and them.


ZIS-101A-Sport. 1939

Helped, as has often happened in the Soviet era, another loud anniversary - two decades of Komsomol. In the long list of gifts of Mother Motherland plant, along with the above-plan cars, through the efforts of Kremenets, entered and ZIS-101A-Sport. October 17, 1938, "Komsomolskaya Pravda" published an article "Athletic limo" with a sketch of the sprout. Country of the gift found out about the present talk, it was too late to retreat. How, after all, is perverse fate! Only yesterday, for work on sports cars guys would have been shot as pests, but today - would be shot if the car was not ready in time. Had nowhere to retreat, and December 11, 1938 issued an order Lihechev N11, which was painted in detail the who, what and when should make for a sporty sedan.


Working out the design a sports car for the first time in Soviet history was controlled almost at the highest level. After all, the ZIS-101A-sport depended very much, and it all perfectly understood. The car has no body to run in the plant, eliminated the deficiencies, "childhood diseases" design. Finally, the first exit on the fully assembled, painted, polished car. Behind the wheel sat Pulmanov near - Puhalin. Kremenets watched their creation looks the part. Young Komsomol did not know that they were not only the first but the last car ...

And so, the presentation of the car to senior management of the country. Piece of the wall of the Union House, where the show was scheduled for the night was dismantled at the hands have a two-ton car lobby, and before dawn led facade in order. Able to work when you need! The operation led personally VMS Director Ivan Likhachev. In the morning, none of the delegates and guests of the Moscow Party Conference is not passed by the car, not paying attention to him. But the main thing: Stalin himself, but for him and other members of the Politburo, not only visited, but also approved an unusual car.

But the young designers in the first place troubled sea trials. So far managed to develop only 168 km / h, but in test mode and not in the official competition, so the result was not counted. In 1940, the ZIS-101A-Sports at the 43rd kilometer of the Minsk highway dispersed to 162.4 km / h in the same 1940 Open VMS-102 score of 153 km / h. However, the design of 180 km / h were very real.

Prospects for the car were huge, but in 1939 Likhachev appointed People's Commissar of Medium Machine Building (although in 1940, Stalin was removed from his post and once again became director of the plant, but the Great Patriotic War), and the new director of ZIS-101A-Sport is not needed. Constructors and enthusiastic life, too, parted: Kremenets stayed at the factory, but was engaged in rigging for machining Pulmanov went to graduate school Automotive Institute and Puhalin - in the missile industry. Only shoots continued to work with cars: long labored ZISe (later ZIL), then in U.S., participated in the creation of many postwar already ZISov and ZIL, including sports.

The experience gained in creating the most serious domestic pre-war sports car, able to compete with road "Bentley" and "Mercedes" of those times, the country is almost useful. Only a portion of the post-war ZIS-101A installed aluminum cylinder heads, raising power to 110 hp. with. Design finds V. sprout is also not useful - ZIS-110 was ordered to copy the American model.

The fate of the VMS-101A-Sport is not known. According to some sources he is rotten at the back of the factory, but other ... others maintain that the dark-green roadster someone somewhere saw in the 1960s. However, the first statement is more real - this was the fate of most domestic counterparts.

News of retro cars world
Владимир заполонили ретро-автомобилиБольшое количество отреставрированных раритетных авто можно было наблюдать на центральных улицах Владимира в минувшее воскресенье. В этот день около 1
Парковка раритетов в центре МинскаВ субботу 2 июля ратуша в Минске на один день превратилась в мини-парковку для ретро. А все потому, что в этот день в Минске проводилось ралли раритет
1 июля по Чите проедет колонна ретро-авто3 июля – день ГАИ (ГИБДД). В этот день исполняется 75 лет со дня образования данной структуры. В честь такого выдающегося события в Чите устроят гранд
«Победе» исполняется 65 летСегодня празднует свой юбилей авто-раритет, носящий легендарное название «Победа». Сегодня исполняется 65 лет с того момента, как первая «Победа» была