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Forgotten stars of the Soviet automobile industry


Soviet sports cars, auto rarities of USSR

Pobeda-Sports

Soviet sports cars - Pobeda-Sports
Pobeda-Sports

War - the evil, no question about it. But it was the war moves of scientific and technical progress. For example, the development, which in time of peace will take several years, during the war years brought to mind a few months or even weeks. You bet! In the rear wall and the bullets for each missing.

But after the victory, indeed a brilliant victory in the country reigned destruction. Industry desperately to cope with the plans, but about the production, or at least develop fast cars and say nothing.

However, for racing was one positive thing: the spoils of war among the country has got a lot of foreign sports cars. Among them - more than a dozen of these racing "Auto Unión", most of which was demolished by Russian designers curious, just before "the last screw" - for detailed study.

The other side of the coin - the majority of riders use in competitions abroad this technique, an order of magnitude superior to domestic production vehicle alteration of amateurs. The political situation in the intra-track heated up. Could not guide the country to show such technical excellence in the last war, allow domestic cars swallow the dust of American, British, French, and, even more so, the German sports cars. And so, in December 1948 published a special government decree of the USSR, which prohibits use of foreign technology on intra-competition. The charges stemmed from a recent serious accident involving one of the "Auto Unión", which was not without casualties. So, willy-nilly, domestic luminaries once again had to sit at the drawing board and reinvent the wheel for the umpteenth time.

 

GAZ M20 "Pobeda", prepared for a competition sport club "Torpedo" the city of Gorky. 1950

Designer walked the beaten path - an increase of streamlining the car without making fundamental changes in the design of engines, transmissions and chassis. To improve the aerodynamics of almost all cars back (and for many - and front) wheels were covered boards, fenders, license plates and other protruding parts were removed, arranged under the body smooth bottoms. Representatives of the Moscow taxi fleets, as well as some other members of competitions, went even further: they added a patch body fairings made of transparent plastic, to make amends celluloid plates enhance windows. Unfortunately, the failure of the front fairing has led to a sharp deterioration of sight path.

 

Gorky Automobile Plant also attempted to create a high-speed car, but no E. Agitova is not passed, until in 1950 the Gorky aircraft plant at N21 GAS has been translated into the chief designer of the aircraft factory, a leading expert on the hydrodynamics of floating bodies of cars, the design of water and the propellers, aerodynamic bodywork fast cars, and forty-three year old Alexei A. Smolin. On his account had already been developing such as: double snowmobile (1934), KSM-1 aircraft with an engine GAZ-M (1935), six-hydroplane (1937), the plane with six-cylinder car engine GAZ-Air ( 1938), snowmobile GAZ-98 and GAZ-98k (1939-1940), amphibious ATV with an engine GAZ-Air (1943). Man, as we see an active and talented.

And in case he came thoroughly. Standard Body M20 has undergone significant changes: The roof fell on 160mm front and rear fairings have appeared, but not made of steel, as in the pre-war GAZ-A-Aero and GAZ-GL1 and lightweight duralumin. The wheels have shields, and a tail, in the best traditions Nikitin, turned into a long drawn out cone. Furthermore, additional "nostrils" on the bonnet - for engine cooling. The bottom was closed by a smooth pan.

A cool was that. Volume Serial nizhneklapannogo "Pobedovskogo" engine was increased to 2487 cc., The compression ratio increased to 7.0 units, there were two K-22A carburetor. As a result of these changes has increased horsepower to 75 horsepower at 4100 rev / min. Engines and chassis were no significant changes, except that the drive shaft is now comprised of two parts, with intermediate support.

With its dimensions (length - 5680 mm, width - 1695 mm, height - 1480mm, Wheelbase - 2700 mm) the car does not weigh so much - 1,200 kg. Of course, such a mass-Winning Sport (for drawings GAZ-C1) was obliged to aircraft materials - duralumin. Incidentally, the C1 - first Soviet sports car, made not a single item. There were five such cars built.

 

"Pobeda-Sports" (GAZ-C1) with an open body. 1955.

The sports season in 1950 one of the GAZ-C1 (N11) appeared in the sports club Torpedo Gorky. Two other "car" Torpedovtsev (N20 and N27) as well dressed art of other participants - at the bottom of the roof were cut, fixed rear doors and windows. But still, they were homemade, not collected under ideal conditions.

 

The best of the forty-three crews was a test of GAZ Michael Metelev (Torpedo-GAS) on the "Pobeda-Sports" N 11. He established a new set-union speed records at distances of 50, 100 and 300 km, respectively, 159.929 km / h 161.211 km / h and 145.858 km / hour.

But this work is not over! Smolin all projects brought to the end to a perfect, perfect, from his point of view, the state.

In 1951, three vehicles were equipped with rotary blowers "Rutz," two carburetors replaced by one, but two-chamber - K-22. Thus the maximum power increased to 105 hp, and speed - up to 190 km / h!

Another car in the same 1951, was equipped with an experimental four-cylinder 2.5-liter engine with an aluminum U.S. cylinder head designed for the compression ratio 9.5, the upper and lower intake exhaust valves, two serial carburetors mounted on the intake manifold ( U.S. design). Power of the engine was already 94 hp at 4000 rev / min. but top speed has increased by only 2 km / m - up to 164 km / h.

In this same year, AA Smolin began work on a more promising vehicle SG2, so that it can be assumed that the installation of different engines - only one step in working out the construction of a new car, no longer tied to the serial chassis.

In 1952, with the only remaining "family" Pobeda Motor-Sport was equipped with an experimental unit head with two spark plugs per cylinder. Compression ratio was raised to 7.4, but increase the power never came. And in 1955 came an open version of the C1 engine GAZ-21.

In total, the machines "Pobeda-Sports" won three championships of the USSR (1950, 1955 and 1956.). This was the first truly successful domestic sports car. However, it is not surprising - after all, it designed the aviainzhener. In addition, the experience gained in the creation of a GAZ-C1, was not in vain, but useful when creating Smolin already in 1951, GAZ-Torpedo (SG2), and later - CF3 (a jet engine MiG-17), and SG4.

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