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Forgotten stars of the Soviet automobile industry


Soviet sports cars, auto rarities of USSR

GAS-TP (Turbojet)

Soviet sports car - GAZ-TR (Turbojet)
GAZ-TP (Turbojet)

Morning November 14, 1954 dawned clear and unusually chilly. In the twilight airfield hangar Gorky dimly shining nose fuselage. Aircraft designer Alexei A. Smolin, lifting his coat collar, looked at his watch impatiently. It's time. At the command of the engineer engineering machine rolled out of the hangar. For aircraft it looked a bit strange - with short wings, with atrophied tail, from which there was only scanty outgrowth keel on four wheels. On the other hand, we also present two-time champion of the USSR M. Metelev motorsport and Chief Designer of Soviet industry giant GAZ AA Lipgart. By the way, AA Smolin, for four years worked in the same factory. So, a bizarre device - a car? If so, what is impressive jet sizes?

By the early 1950s, the Soviet motor racing was already more or less advanced stage of development. USSR Championships is approaching international standards, but the sports equipment is still inferior to their foreign "brothers." However, in certain classes of drivers exceeded the achievements of our results of foreign athletes (in 1946 at a record car "Star" test engineer, master of sports of A. Ponizovkin broke the record 146.938 km / h in a 350 cc class. Belonging to previous Italian R. Chekin), but the absolute speed record - 634.26 km / h, was still unreachable. However, in the higher echelons of power, the word "unreachable" used the phrase "has not yet been broken." As often happens, to make the dream a reality was to the ordinary citizens councils.

And then, in 1952, AA Smolin is perhaps the only man in the Union with a unique design experience as airplanes and sports cars (GAZ-C1 "Victory-Sports", GAZ-SG2 "GAZ-Torpedo"), has put forward a bold proposal - to build a car with a perfect record aerodynamics low birth weight, and ... turbojet! If such an idea came to less eminent designer - it would raise a laugh, but Smolin has a sufficiently high standing to get a "green light" from the main designer Andrew Liphart GAZ.

In 1954, GAZ-TR, which bore the official name of the GAZ-CF3 was built, becoming the world's first vehicle with a turbojet engine. A. Smolin, far ahead of similar design Osticha Americans N. (1960) and K. Bridlava (1964).

It is necessary to pay tribute to Smolin - aircraft designer, he being, even designing the car, went to them to be using all of the same aircraft material - duralumin and aluminum. From the first frame has been assembled bearing car, the second is used to make sheets of paneling. Since most aerodynamically perfect conformal at the time considered a form of the fuselage, and so GAZ-TR is built in the image of a fighter - spindle-shaped body with splashes at the locations of an aircraft's wings and keel, but, naturally, without elevators.

As engine power plant used MiG-17 1000 hp The design speed car was 800 km / h - well above the record 634 km / h! However, in practice the situation was somewhat different. The first and most serious problem - lack of special high-speed tires. Important point - stop the car after the enormous speeds - the application of traditional rims and drums was insane. And finally, the third problem - the lack of the entire USSR band booster long enough to reach 800 km / h. If the second problem was solved by using the drag chute (again - air reception!), A third problem - the same as found on the map vast Motherland Astrakhan region, and its territory - intermittent salt lake Baskunchak, whose bottom in the summer turns into a perfectly flat salt crust. But the most important issue - special high-speed tires, and have not decided.

Despite this, November 14, 1954 held sea trials at the GAZ-TR runway airfield Gorky. Given that the fighters take off speed is around 300 km / h, the runway length was more appropriate, and, consequently, the GAZ-CF3 could not develop her greater speed, and MA Meteleva was designated the "ceiling" on the speed tests at 300 km / h.

That ill-fated day because of organizational error trials ended katostrofy. The car was severely damaged, and he himself escaped with two-time champion of the USSR ... a broken finger on his leg! And all thanks to air four-point safety belts, applicable on the car for the first time in the world. However, work on the GAZ-TP were terminated. Today, the wreckage of a unique vehicle can be seen in the factory museum GAZ.

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