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Forgotten stars of the Soviet automobile industry


Soviet sports cars, auto rarities of USSR

Soviet sports cars, auto rarities of USSR

It is strange in Russia has build and build now a sports cars. But so many peoples even in Russia don't know about this. Even in Soviet times they were made, as major auto giants and small sports clubs and other enthusiasts, loners. These cars were an analogue of the European "Alfa Romeo", "Aston Martin", "Porsche" and others. And so proceed to the fun.

1911 Russo-Baltique C24-55
Initially the firm "Russo-Balt" engaged in the production of railway equipment. At the dawn of the twentieth century, the company management has decided to manufacture cars. It was on Russo-Balt "and made the first Russian sports car. He served as the basis for serial car models "C24-35. She added a forced up to 55 hp engine cylinder capacity of 4.5 liters. It was the world's first engine with aluminum pistons. Innovation was kept a closely guarded secret. By then the standards of the car was a high-speed 116 km / h. And in 1912, Andrew Nagel, who participated in it in the Rally Monte Carlo shown in the prestigious competition is very good result 9 th place in general classification. From St. Petersburg to the Monte Carlo he was supposed to go with a partner by Mikhailov, but he just broke his arm at the start of the launcher arm - the engine gave a backfire. Such incidents have occurred frequently before the introduction of electric starter. Whatever it was, Nagel alone drove the car up to the Cote d'Azur and became one of the main characters of Rally Monte Carlo. " In 1913, the only copy of "Russo-Baltique C24-55" remade in pure racing car with streamlined bodywork. The machine has successfully performed at various events, but then lost in the turmoil of revolution and civil war.

1913 La Byuir-Illin
At the IV International Motor Show 1913 in St. Petersburg made its debut a little sports car. Her body double resembled a cigar, for which she soon acquired the nickname "Havana." The car had a "dual citizenship". The chassis and engine - the French company La Buire, and housing for private orders manufactured Moscow cartwright-car factory Il'ina. small firm was the Russian dealer La Buire and often built for these machines exclusive body. By racing Havana had nothing to do. It was a vehicle for high-speed country walks and defile the city streets.

1932 NATI-2
Motor and tractor Scientific Institute (NATI) was the forerunner of the current U.S.. He was engaged in technical development in the automotive sector. In 1932 his team witty six prototypes subcompact NATI-2. all the cars had different bodywork. One sported two-seater sports-type roadster. For its time, NATI-2 was a pretty good car. Served as the basis for Spinal frame. Economical four-cylinder engine (1.2 liters.) Developed 22 hp Suspension rear wheels - an independent, which was then a rarity in the minicar. Sorry, but the worker-peasant country sports cars were considered a bourgeois extravagance. And roadster NATI-2 went to the scrap

1937 GAZ-A Sport
This machine did enthusiast Anton Girel. It was quite an elderly man and kept the memories of a brief heyday of motor racing in Russian pre-revolutionary times. It was they who pushed him to create the sports car. Basis for Girel took the GAZ-A, who was then the most popular cars in the USSR. All work performed on a motor depots Leningrad. The design of the GAZ-A Sports was kind of naive. So in the undercarriage of the aerodynamic fin sticking out a little - a thing quite useless, since the car was low-speed. Despite boosted to 55 hp engine, the car could only reach 129 km / h. By the standards of Europe - funny to figure sports car. However, by the standards of the USSR - All-Union speed record, which was officially registered for Anton Girelem.

1937 GAZ-TSAKS
Made in Leningrad, the GAZ-A Sports was the cause of another "duel" between Serena and the capital Moscow. In the capital, the official also decided to create its own sports car according to the decision of the Central Council of Sports Car Club (TSAKS). The project is headed by engineer B. Tsipulin. As a basis, he also took a massive GAZ-A, but its design has been seriously reworked. The suspension was stiffer and much lower. By panels of specially created a streamlined body hiding uprated engines. This machine TSAKS than once exhibited at the race. When she went to the starting place for it strengthened the headlights and fenders, and just before the race they were filming. To drive a car known in those years, a test tank A. Kulchitsky. He had the reputation of a brave man, but the rate of more than 130 km / h it was not possible to develop - the motor for some reason worked intermittently. Surprisingly, the gas-TSAKS survived the war. In the 40-50-x car can sometimes be seen on the streets of Moscow. Further traces of it are lost. In any case, the machine is far outlived its creator - Tsipulina shot in the same 1937.

1939 ZIS-Sport
One of the greatest sports cars, established in the USSR. By temperament, he competed with the road "Bentley" and "Mercedes" of those times. The elegant two-seater designed a group of young designers ZIS, headed by A. Puhalinym. Designed by the artist developed the germs. VMS-Sport made specially for the anniversary of the Komsomol. In the House of Unions, where the celebration took place, the car literally on his hands made the room before opening. The basis of ZIS-Sport chassis was representative of the ZIS-101A. Engine cylinder capacity of six liters was boosted to 141 hp The motor was very long (eight cylinder in-line) and very heavy. To improve weight distribution and load the drive wheels, double cockpit shifted far back. The machine turned out squat and swift. In 1940, during testing, it has a top speed 162 km / h, which was a major indicator for the 30-ies. After the war, the ZIS-Sports for many years rotting in the back of the factory, and later he wrote off for scrap.

1950 Pobeda-Sport
Double sports car designed by A. Smolin, a former designer of aircraft factory. Hence the "passion" for duralumin, which is made from the body. Official (for drawings) the name of the model was the GAZ-C1. these cars have three pieces. At the heart of everyone - the serial "Victory". Under the hood hiding pobedovsky engine whose cylinder capacity was increased to 2.5 liters, and power - up to 70 hp In 1951 he added a supercharged engine, and he began to give out 105 hp uzhu Speed ​​compressor "Pobeda-Sports" reached 190 km / h. It is on this car Mikhail Metelev in 1950 became the first champion of the USSR on an auto racing.

1951 GAZ-Torpedo
Under this name, this sports car featured in many publications. These same his name - GAZ-SG2. Index shows that the model has succeeded, "Pobeda Sports" and designed it all the same aviainzhener Smolin. Engine with a supercharger developed 105 hp The ceiling rate of GAZ-Torpedo exceed 191 km / h. Projecting its second-generation sports car, Smolin has not relied on the support frame "Pobeda". He built a brand new beautiful cigar-shaped bearing body. The car weighed 1.100 kg. Fortunately, this machine is almost preserved to this day, and now a museum to rebuild GAZ GAZ-Torpedo.

1951 ZIS-112
The appearance of the machine produced a sensation. In appearance it is comparable to the best American "dream-karam» ("dream-car" - means "a car is a dream" - that way before it was decided to call the conceptual development). Design of the machine belongs to the artist germ, the author of the above VMS-Sport. Yes, and the overall design of the car - also the cause of his hands and mind. Taken as a basis for the chassis serial ZIS-110 limousine. borrowed from him and a huge engine - eight cylinders, six liters of displacement. Various tricks were able to raise output to 182 hp Maximum speed ZIS-112 was struck by all - 205 km / h! However, attempts to use the machine in circuit racing unsuccessful. The car is said to engineers, received a "tadpole": the nose is too heavy, and the tail is too easy. Therefore, the compartment is easily broken in a skid. To improve handling, the wheelbase was soon reduced to a meter. On a removable hard top also later abandoned - while racing at the 300-kilometer distance in the cockpit could hardly breathe. The only instance of ZIS-112 to the present day not lived.

1951 Moskvich-403E-424E Coupe
Metropolitan automaker, most of us known as AZLK, originally was called MZMA - Moscow plant of small cars. In 1951 it produced six specimens promising models "Moskvich". One was a two-seater sports coupe. For machines designed a new engine cylinder capacity of 1.1 liters. and a power of 33 hp The frame carrying the body preserved from the previous model "400", but all exterior panels are new. In the mass production of this car did not go. Factory workers, mindful that their first model of the "400" was a copy of Opel Cadet, sarcastically dubbed an experimental novelty "Sgt. Sports modification "Sergeant" is not just started in racing. Its top speed reaches 123 km / h. Three years later, he remade into an open car with very low body

1954 Moskvich-Sport-404
Sports car racing debut in the spring of 54-th. When used in its construction underbody of "Sergeant" in 1951. Machine equipped with an experimental engine in the "404" (1.1 liter, 58 hp). In 1959 it was replaced by a perfect engine, "407G" (1,4 l., 70 hp). The first option weighed 902 pounds and developed a speed of 147 km / h. After installing the new engine driving a sports Moskvich could reach 156 km / h. On this machine in 1957, 1958 and 1959 won the national championship in road racing.

1957 GAZ-SG4

The next generation of GAZ sports cars, established A. Smolin. Light saw just four copies SG4. The machine had advanced design. Note bearing body made of aluminum (as in modern mass-produced «Audi» and «Jaguar»), an aluminum crankcase and the main transmission boosted to 90 hp GAZ-21 engine. One of the engines was equipped with an electronically controlled fuel injection! The car speeds up to 190 km / h. In 1963 it won the championship of the USSR. In 1958, GAZ is sold Moscow taxi park № 6 SG4 three and two earlier SG1/56. All five cars until 1965 regularly can be seen on the racing circuit, where she participated sports team taxis.

1961 KVN-2500S
Such vehicles on the draft V. Kosenkova was made six pieces. One of the models - KVN-3500C - equipped with uprated engine from the executive GAZ-12 (3,5 l.95-100 hp). The remaining cars were exactly the same, bore the notation KVN-2500S and have the motors on the GAZ-21 Volga power 90-95 hp KVNy weighed 900 kg. The maximum speed reached 185 to 190 km / h. No machine has not been preserved.

1961 Kiev
This is a beautiful coupe designed and con in the aviation design bureau Antonov. The project is carried out engineer V. Zemtsov. On the machine was forced up to 90 hp engine from the Volga. Maximum rate of "Kiev" is 190 km/h.

1961 KVN-1300g
The next generation model of KVN, also designed by engineer B. Kosenkova. Lightweight sports car built on the basis of the mechanisms of serial Moskvich-407 ". Forced engine developed about 65 horsepower, allowing the car to pick up speed to 155 km / h. At KVN-1300g won the championship of the USSR on car racing. In 1963, instead moskvichevskogo motor installed engine "Volga" 90 hp In the rear suspension to replace the hard bridge came independent mechanism. To improve manageability.

1962 ZIL-112S
This magnificent supercar capital plant ZIL produced in duplicate. Designer Rodionov used rare decision. For example, the gearbox rear axle was placed so as to gear it could be changed "on his knee, quickly adapting transmission parameters to the features of a particular race track. And the wheels have changed too quickly due to mounting on a single central wing nut. Source of motion served on the representative ZIL V8. One volume of six liters and the power of 230 hp Another seven liters, respectively, and 270 hp Depending on the type of light engine supercar (weight - 1.300 kilograms) to develop or 260, or 270 km / h. Behind the wheel of the ZIL-112S racer G. Zharkov in 1956 became the national champion. Both machines are preserved and exhibited at the Riga Motor Museum.

1962 Moskvich-407 Coupe
Experimental sports car, designed by the Leo Shugurova, based on the serial "Moskvich". Such vehicles were only two. Under the hood hiding forced motor model "403" (1.4 liter., 81 hp). On this engine the first time in the history of Russian automobile was equipped with two horizontal twin carburettor Weber. Velocity sports Moskvich reached 150 km / h. Alas, none of the copies are not kept.

1969 KD
In the late 60's the group of enthusiasts from the U.S. designed and built five identical homemade sports car-dvuhmestok. All units and mechanisms are taken from the serial "Zaporozhtsev. Fiberglass Body CD manufactured at the Moscow plant body, whose director was Kuzma bad. In his initials and the model was named. The car weighed only 500 kg and at a power of 30 hp developed a speed of 120 km / h. The design of the CD has been very successful, and the machine could produce in small batches - the demand for it was. But the manufacturer of exclusive sports cars was not possible in a country where getting ready to launch the giant car factory in Togliatti. Of the five copies of the CD made a few "live" on this day

1970 GTSCH
Designers brothers Vladimir and Sherbinin set out to build a sports car based on the nodes of the Volga. Added a two-seater car body type "Gran Turismo" (hence the name - GT Scherbiny). GTSCH was powerful and fast, then what is supposed by law to homemade. As the brothers recorded their offspring to the traffic police - a mysterious story ... The car weighed 1.250 kg. Thanks to fairly strong volgovskomu motor (70 hp) it can reach speeds of up to 150 km / h. A curious story of a car. Serve as a basis frame brothers Schebininy cooked right in his yard. Then she picked up in an apartment on the seventh floor, where vykleili body of fiberglass. Then the entire structure was lowered from a balcony on a rope on the ground where GTSCH got a motor, chassis, interior and everything else you need to have a full car.

1982 Una
The car got its name from the initial letters of the names and surnames of the authors - the spouses and N. Yu Algebraistovyh. "Una" was a coupe in the style of European "Gran Turismo". Car classic layout (engine - front wheel drive - rear) based on the nodes of the Volga GAZ-24. through the body of fiberglass, "Yoon has received relatively easy and could be in line to pick up speed almost 200 km / h.

1983 Laura
A couple of copies of this sports model designed and built two Leningrad craftsman Dmitri Parfenov and Gennady Hain. Their excellent work was seen even Mikhail Gorbachev, who ordered them to provide a well-equipped workshop for further experiments. "Laura" are interesting because, despite the body "coupe" that has a very roomy interior. Five people were placed there without any problems. A very progressive decision then considered and front-wheel drive. The motor was taken from the VAZ "classics" (1,5 l. 77 hp). Gearbox borrowed from the "plows". The car weighed a ton and speeds up to 160 km / h. "Laura" is rich equipment. There were even electric windows, which by the standards of the Soviet automobile industry seemed the height of luxury. Both samples were preserved to our days.

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